With Reiner Eichenberger

AER Papers and Proceedings 1992 (does not cite JEP)[1], quotes from first and last pages: 1) "America and Europe differ with regard to what economics is understood to be, how it is practiced, and how professional academic economists behave." 2) "First, American (U.S. and Canadian) economists contribute by far the largest share of journal publications and are cited much more often than European economists. In contrast, (West-) European economists consider other aspects of their professional activities more relevant, in particular participating in local and national affairs." 3) "Second, economic research by Americans tends to focus on abstract issues defined within the profession itself. Accordingly, it develops a marked internal dynamic, and academic fads play a considerable role. The activities of European economists (though not necessarily their research) are more concerned with practical issues and follow a more steady course." 4) "However, this difference is about to vanish in the future, owing to a major institutional change which is bound to affect European economists' behavior. An integration of Europe opening up the previously closed markets makes cartellization more difficult." "In short, the European academic market will become similar to the American one."

Journal of Economic Perspectives 1993 (does not cite AER PP)[2], quotes from first and last pages: 1) "This paper endeavors to explain the difference between America (the United States and Canada) and Western Europe with regard to academic institutions, academic activities" 2) "Output (performance) is approached differently. Americans dominate journal publications and citations (A-output) and tend to respond in a textbook manner to statements of opinion (A-statements). European economists have a proud performance with respect to political position (E-output) and tend to evaluate performance with respect to how it is achieved" 3) "European economic scholars thus have an incentive to be both theoretically broad and institutionally specialized. In contrast, for an American scholar, knowledge of specific institutional details is of little or no benefit in the continent-wide academic market. He or she can be distinguished among the large number of competitors only by performing economics at an abstract, non-institution-specific level" 4) "In the longer run, a unified European market will bring increased mobility among academic economists, in particular with more Americans teaching and researching in Europe. There will be little, if any, difference between the type of economic research produced by Americans or Europeans; both will come up with specialized theoretical results with little local institutional content."

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