With Alois Stutzer

Journal of Happiness Studies 2000 (does not cite the other papers)[1], abstract: “An econometric analysis of a happiness function, based on a survey of 6,000 persons in Switzerland, indicates that: (1) the more developed the institutions of direct democracy, the happier the individuals are; (2) people derive procedural utility from the possibility of participating in the direct democratic process over and above a more favorable political outcome; (3) the unemployed are much less happy than the employed, independent of income; (4) higher income is associated with higher levels of happiness. The consideration of institutional differences in cross-regional data offers important new insights into happiness research.”

The Economic Journal 2000 (does not cite the other papers)[2], abstract: “Institutional factors in the form of direct democracy (via initiatives and referenda) and federal structure (local autonomy) systematically and sizeably raise self-reported individual well-being in a cross-regional econometric analysis. This positive effect can be attributed to political outcomes closer to voters' preferences, as well as to the procedural utility of political participation possibilities. Moreover, the results of previous microeconometric well-being functions for other countries are generally supported. Unemployment has a strongly depressing effect on happiness. A higher income level raises happiness, however, only to a small extent.” Section 3 of this and section 5 of the Journal of Happiness Studies paper are almost the same.

World Economics 2002 (only cites Economic Journal 2000)[3], fragment: “Happiness depends on three sets of factors: Demographic and personality factors, such as age, gender and family circumstances, as well as nationality, education and health; Economic factors, in particular unemployment, income, and inflation; Political factors such as the extent of possibilities for citizens to participate in politics, and the degree of governmental decentralisation.”

Journal of Economic Literature 2002 (only cites Economic Journal)[4], introduction: “how do economic growth, unemployment and inflation, and institutional factors such as governance affect individual well-being?”

  1. Frey, Bruno S., Alois Stutzer (2000), "Happiness Prospers in Democracy", Journal of Happiness Studies 1(1), 79-102.
  2. Bruno S. Frey, Alois Stutzer (2000), "Happiness, Economy and Institutions", The Economic Journal 110(466), 918–938.
  3. Frey, Bruno S. & Alois Stutzer (2002), "The Economics of Happiness.", World Economics 3(1), 25 - 41.
  4. Frey, Bruno S., and Alois Stutzer (2002), "What Can Economists Learn from Happiness Research?", Journal of Economic Literature 40(2), 402-435.
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